Lyx Bibliography Et Al Usage

LaTeX forum ⇒ BibTeX, biblatex and biber ⇒ BibTeX doesn't abbreviate to “et al.”Topic is solved

Information and discussion about BiBTeX - the bibliography tool for LaTeX documents.









julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

BibTeX doesn't abbreviate to “et al.”

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:57 pm

This is an exact copy of my question at: http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/297271/bibtex-harvard-agsm-doesnt-abbreviate-to-et-al-for-duplicate-authoryear, which didn't get any replies. Apologies for cross-posting, but I have to finish a PhD thesis

With BibTeX and the harvard/AGSM style, some references (from authors who have multiple papers per year) aren't abbreviated to "et al.", with the addition of a, b, et cetera. For example, with the code attached below, I get:



Only one paper is abbreviated to et al., the others not. Any idea why this is happening? The in-text references should be Basu et al. (2008a) and Basu et al. (2008b), which I believe AGSM should automatically do?

It actually works correctly if both papers (basu2008a, basu2008b) have the exact same authors (result: Basu et al. (2008a,b)), or if one of the papers only has one author (result: Basu et al. (2008), Basu (2008)) or two authors (result; Basu et al. (2008), Basu & Holtslag (2008)). But as soon as it needs to add the a or b, something fails and the full list of authors is writting in-text.



With Bibtex file:

  1. \documentclass[10pt,a4paper]{article}
  2. \cite{basu2008a, basu2008b, beare2006}
  3. \bibliography{references.bib}
  1. @string{jam="J. Appl. Meteor."}
  2. @string{ag="Acta Geop."}
  3. @string{blm="Bound.-Layer Meteor."}
  4. author={Basu, S. and Vinuesa, J.-F. and Swift, A.},
  5. title={Dynamic {LES} modeling of a diurnal cycle},
  6. author={Basu, S. and Holtslag, A. A. M. and Wiel, B. J. H. and Moene, A. F. and Steeneveld, G. J.},
  7. title={An inconvenient "truth" about using sensible heat flux as a surface boundary condition in models under stably stratified regimes},
  8. author={Beare,R. J. and Macvean,M. K. and Holtslag,A. A. M. and Cuxart,J. and Esau,I. and Golaz,J. -. and Jimenez,M. A. and Khairoutdinov,M. and Kosovic,B. and Lewellen,D. and Lund,T. S. and Lundquist,J. K. and McCabe,A. and Moene,A. F. and Noh,Y. and Raasch,S. and Sullivan,P.},
  9. title={An intercomparison of large-eddy simulations of the stable boundary layer},
Johannes_B
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Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Mon Mar 14, 2016 3:15 pm

Welcome, you poste a link and clearly stated that this is a crosspost, so this is no problem at all.


What you see is a very important feature. It makes the entries really unique.
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 3:28 pm

Johannes_B wrote:What you see is a very important feature. It makes the entries really unique.


But I thought that using the Harvard style this should be abbreviated to bla (2008a), bla (2008b)?

Multiple references to the same author
If you cite different documents by the same author which were published in the same year, to distinguish between them add the letters a, b, c, etc. in lower case after the year. Repeat in the reference list.
Example: ... (Williamson, 2001a), (Williamson, 2001b) etc. ...

http://www.kit.nl/health/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/09/Harvard-Ref.pdf
Johannes_B
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Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Mon Mar 14, 2016 4:10 pm

Harvard Referencing just means author date referencing.

You stated yourself in your question, that it works if the author is the same (no matter if one name or a matching list of names), so you need an extra letter to uniquely cite.

Consider the following: Basu, Gonzales, Jesus, Fernandez (2009) and Basu, Smith, Edinborough, Wright (2009)

Would you feel confident to replace this with Basu (2009a) and Basu (2009b)?
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
julietbravo
Posts:5
Joined: Mon Mar 14, 2016 2:49 pm

Postby julietbravo » Mon Mar 14, 2016 5:19 pm

I don't see the difference? I mean, two different papers which both have the exact same list of authors are abbreviated to "Basu et al. (2008a), Basu et al. (2008b)", with the resulting references as (this is actually what Bibtex/AGSM creates):

Basu, S., Vinuesa, J.-F. & Swift, A. (2008a), ‘Dynamic LES modeling of a diurnal cycle’, J. Appl. Meteor. 47(4), 1156–1174.
Basu, S., Vinuesa, J.-F. & Swift, A. (2008b), ‘An inconvenient ”truth” about using sensible heat flux as a surface boundary condition in models under stably stratified regimes’, Acta Geop. 56(1), 88–99.


Then why not do the same thing for two publications which have different authors, like in my example? As long as the addition a/b is also present in the bibliography (like in the example above), the in-text references are uniquely labeled?
Johannes_B
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Postby Johannes_B » Tue Mar 15, 2016 1:32 am

This is science/engineering ... when you don't know an answer but know the guy who might now the answer, you are golden.

I will add mico's answer tomorrow.
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.
Johannes_B
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Postby Johannes_B » Tue Mar 15, 2016 7:45 pm

Mico posted an answer on TeX.SX:
Mico wrote:You've come across an unusual -- and admittedly rather severely under-documented -- feature (not a bug...) of the `agsm` bibliography style. Suppose two bib items labelled, say, `AA` and `BB` each have one or more authors. Crucially, suppose the *total number* of authors differs -- e.g., let bibitem `AA` have 3 authors and bibitem `BB` have 5 authors -- and suppose further that `AA` and `BB` share the same first author (say, `XYZ`) *and* the same publication year (say, `2000`).

When this occurs -- as is the case in the example you've posted -- the `agsm` bibliography style does *not* set the citation call-outs as `XYZ et al (2000a)` and `XYZ et al. (2000b)`, respectively. Instead, it lists *all author names* for both publications.

I suppose this is a fail-safe way of avoiding any kind of confusion over whose publication might be cited as `XYZ et al. (2000a)`.

The only time when you do get the `FirstAuthor et al (year)` citation call-out pattern is if (a) the two publications have the same authors (and thus the same *number* of authors) as well as the same publication year *and* (b) there is no other three-or-more-author publication in the bibliography that features the same first author and publication year.

Again, this feature of the `agsm` style is both uncommon (to put it neutrally) and, unfortunately, quite obscure and under-documented. I wouldn't call it a bug, though. If you truly can't stand this feature, it's probably a good idea to start looking for an alternative bibliography style.

An MWE and screenshot:



  1. \RequirePackage{filecontents}
  2. \begin{filecontents}{testagsm.bib}
  3. author = "XYZ", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  4. author = "XYZ and B", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  5. author = "XYZ and B and C", title = "x1", journal = "y", year = 2000}
  6. author = "XYZ and B and C", title = "x2", journal = "y", year = 2000}
  7. author = "XYZ and BB and CC and DD", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  8. author = "XYZ and BBB and CCC and DDD and EEE", title = "x", journal= "y", year = 2000}
  9. author = "A and B and C", title = "D1", journal = "E1",
  10. year = 3001, volume = 1, number = 2, pages = "3-4"}
  11. author = "A and B and C", title = "D2", journal = "E2",
  12. year = 3001, volume = 5, number = 6, pages = "7-8"}
  13. \usepackage{natbib,har2nat}
  14. \setlength\parindent{0pt}% just for this example
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.

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Your LaTeX file needs to include
  • a reference to a label in your BibTeX file whenever you want to cite an item in the file
  • a reference to the bibliography style file you want to use, which determines how the references you cite are formatted in the bibliography of your document (and possibly a LaTeX style file associated with the bibliography style)
  • a LaTeX command to generate the bibliography at the point in your document where you want it to appear.

Example using

Here is an example using the bibliography style , which produces citations in "author (year)" format. This file is available on this page (which has instructions on where to put the file once you get it). The lines related to BibTeX are highlighed. It requires the LaTeX style file to produce citations in the right style in the text (matching the format of the references produced by ). You probably have this file already (assuming you have some implementation of TeX on your computer). If you don't, you can get it on this CTAN page. Hover over orangetext to see explanations.

When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that looks roughly like this:

This document illustrates the use of BibTeX. You may want to refer to Arrow et al. (1961) or Aliprantis and Border (1994) or Maskin (1985). Or you may want to cite a specific page in a reference, like this: see Maskin (1985, p. 199). Or perhaps you want to cite more than one paper by Maskin: Maskin (1985, 1999). Or you want to make a parenthetical reference to one or more articles, in which case the \citealt command omits the parentheses around the year (Arrow et al. 1961).
A few more options for the command are available. Here they are:
Jones et al. (1990)
Jones, Baker, and Smith (1990)
(Jones et al. 1990)
(Jones, Baker, and Smith 1990)
(Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)
(e.g. Jones et al., 1990)
(e.g. Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)
Jones et al.
Jones, Baker, and Smith
1990
*Jones et al.'s (1990)

*Assumes \citeapos is defined in your style or document like this:

(Thanks to Christopher M. Duncombe Rae for pointing out this simple way of generating a possessive citation.)

The list of references will look like this:

Aliprantis, Charalambos D. and Kim C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Springer, Berlin.

Arrow, Kenneth J., Leonid Hurwicz, and Hirofumi Uzawa (1961), "Constraint qualifications in maximization problems." Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175–191.

Maskin, Eric S. (1985), "The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey." In Social Goals and Social Organization (Leonid Hurwicz, David Schmeidler, and Hugo Sonnenschein, eds.), 173–204, Cambridge University Press.

Maskin, Eric S. (1999), "Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality." Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23–38.

Example using

Here is an example using the bibliography style , which in included in many LaTeX systems.

When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that differs from the output when you use only in that the names of all three authors of Arrow, Hurwicz, and Uzawa (1961) are listed in the first citation to that work, although not in the second, parenthetical, citation.

The list of references differs more significantly from the list produced by : only authors' initials, not their full first names, are included, and "&" rather than "and" is used as a separator; numbers in page ranges are separated by hyphens, rather than the conventional en-dashes. Precisely, the list of references produced by looks like this:

Aliprantis, C. D. & K. C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Berlin: Springer.

Arrow, K. J., Hurwicz, L., & Uzawa, H. (1961), Constraint qualifications in maximization problems. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175-191.

Maskin, E. S. (1985), The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey. In L. Hurwicz, D. Schmeidler, & H. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Social Goals and Social Organization (p. 173-204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maskin, Eric S. (1999), Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality. Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23-38.

Other bibliography styles for author-year citations

A family of styles that produce author-year citations is available on this page.

Creating your own bibliography style

A BibTeX style file is plain text, which in principle you can edit. However, the language used is arcane, and changes that are more than trivial are tricky. A better way to proceed is to create a new style file from scratch, using the custom-bib package (that's how I created ). You run TeX on a file, which asks you a long list of questions about the features of the style you would like. You'll probably not be completely clear about your preferred answers to all the questions on your first attempt, but two or three runs should produce a format to your liking.

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