Advertisement Essay Conclusion Transitions

While getting started can be very difficult, finishing an essay is usually quite straightforward. By the time you reach the end you will already know what the main points of the essay are, so it will be easy for you to write a summary of the essay and finish with some kind of final comment, which are the two components of a good conclusion. An example essay has been given below to help you understand both of these, and there is a checklist at the end which you can use for editing your conclusion.


In short, the concluding paragraph consists of the following two parts:


Summary

It is important, at the end of the essay, to summarise the main points. If your thesis statement is detailed enough, then your summary can just be a restatement of your thesis using different words. The summary should include all the main points of the essay, and should begin with a suitable transition signal. You should not add any new information at this point.


The following is an example of a summary for a short essay on cars (given below):


In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams.


Although this summary is only one sentence long, it contains the main (controlling) ideas from all three paragraphs in the main body. It also has a clear transition signal ('In conclusion') to show that this is the end of the essay.


Final comment

Once the essay is finished and the writer has given a summary, there should be some kind of final comment about the topic. This should be related to the ideas is in the main body. Your final comment might:


Here is an example of a final comment for the essay on cars:


If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.


This final comment offers solutions, and is related to the ideas in the main body. One of the disadvantages in the body was pollution, so the writer suggests developing 'green fuels' to help tackle this problem. The second disadvantage was traffic congestion, and the writer again suggests a solution, 'car sharing'. By giving these suggestions related to the ideas in the main body, the writer has brought the essay to a successful close.



Example essay

Below is a discussion essay which looks at the advantages and disadvantages of car ownership. This essay is used throughout the essay writing section to help you understand different aspects of essay writing. Here it focuses on the summary and final comment of the conclusion (mentioned on this page), the thesis statement and general statements of the introduction, and topic sentences and controlling ideas. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay.


General
statements

Thesis
statement

  

Topic
sentences

Controlling ideas

1

2

3

1

2

3

  

Summary

Final
comment

Although they were invented almost a hundred years ago, for decades cars were only owned by the rich. Since the 60s and 70s they have become increasingly affordable, and now most families in developed nations, and a growing number in developing countries, own a car.While cars have undoubted advantages, of which their convenience is the most apparent, they have significant drawbacks, most notably pollution and traffic problems.

The most striking advantage of the car is its convenience. When travelling long distance, there may be only one choice of bus or train per day, which may be at an unsuitable time. The car, however, allows people to travel at any time they wish, and to almost any destination they choose.

Despite this advantage, cars have many significant disadvantages, the most important of which is the pollution they cause. Almost all cars run either on petrol or diesel fuel, both of which are fossil fuels. Burning these fuels causes the car to emit serious pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Not only are these gases harmful for health, causing respiratory disease and other illnesses, they also contribute to global warming, an increasing problem in the modern world. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2013), transportation in the US accounts for 30% of all carbon dioxide production in that country, with 60% of these emissions coming from cars and small trucks. In short, pollution is a major drawback of cars.

A further disadvantage is the traffic problems that they cause in many cities and towns of the world. While car ownership is increasing in almost all countries of the world, especially in developing countries, the amount of available roadway in cities is not increasing at an equal pace. This can lead to traffic congestion, in particular during the morning and evening rush hour. In some cities, this congestion can be severe, and delays of several hours can be a common occurrence. Such congestion can also affect those people who travel out of cities at the weekend. Spending hours sitting in an idle car means that this form of transport can in fact be less convenient than trains or aeroplanes or other forms of public transport.

In conclusion, while the car is advantageous for its convenience, it has some important disadvantages, in particular the pollution it causes and the rise of traffic jams. If countries can invest in the development of technology for green fuels, and if car owners can think of alternatives such as car sharing, then some of these problems can be lessened.


Union of Concerned Scientists (2013). Car Emissions and Global Warming.www.ucsusa.org/clean vehicles/why-clean-cars/global-warming/ (Access date: 8 August, 2013)

General
statements

 

Thesis
statement

 

Topic
sentences

1

2

3

 

Controlling ideas

1

2

3

 

Summary

 

Final
comment



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Checklist

Below is a checklist for an essay conclusion. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.


ItemOK?Comment
The conclusion begins with a suitable transition signal (e.g. 'In conclusion...', 'To summarise...', 'In sum...')
The conclusion has a summary of the main ideas
The conclusion ends with a final comment (the writer's idea or a recommendation)


Next section

Find out how to improve the cohesion of your writing.




Previous section

Go back to the previous section about the main body of an essay.






Transition signals are useful in achieving good cohesion and coherence in your writing. This page gives information on what transition signals are, the grammar of transition signals, and different types of transition signals. The is also an example essay at the end in which you can highlight the different types of transition signal.


What are transition signals?

Transition signals, along with repeated words and reference words, are one of the main ways to achieve good cohesion and coherence in your writing. They are therefore a way to help ensure that your ideas and sentences cohere or 'stick together'. Transition signals are used to signal relationships between ideas in your writing. For example, the transition signal 'for example' is used to give examples, while the word 'while' is used to show a contrast. In addition, there are phrases like 'in addition' for adding new ideas. Likewise there are words such as 'likewise' to connect similar ideas.


Grammar of transition signals

Broadly speaking, transition signals can be divided into three types:


Sentence connectors are used to connect two sentences together. They are joined by a full-stop (period) or semi-colon, and are followed by a comma. The following are examples of sentence connectors.


Clause connectors are used to connect two clauses together to form one sentence. They are joined by a comma. The following are examples of clause connectors.


Other connectors follow different grammar patterns. Many are followed by noun phrases. Some are verbs and should therefore be used as verbs in a sentence. The following are examples of other connectors.


Types of transition signals

Below are examples of different types of transition signals. They are divided by type, and sub-divided according to grammar.


To introduce an additional idea

Sentence connectors

  • also
  • besides
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • moreover
  • additionally

Other

  • another (+ noun)
  • an additional (+ noun)


To compare

Sentence connectors

  • likewise
  • similarly
  • equally
  • in the same way

Clause connectors

  • and
  • both... and
  • not only... but also
  • neither... nor
  • just as

Other

  • as... as
  • like/alike
  • just like
  • to be similar to
  • to be alike
  • to be similar


To contrast

Sentence connectors

  • however
  • in contrast
  • instead
  • in/by comparison
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • on the other hand
  • on the contrary
  • still

Clause connectors

  • but
  • yet
  • although
  • even though
  • though
  • whereas
  • while

Other

  • despite (+ noun)
  • in spite of (+ noun)
  • compared to/with
  • to be different (from)
  • to be dissimilar
  • to be unlike
  • to differ (from)


To introduce a cause/reason

Other

  • to result from
  • to be the result of
  • due to
  • because of
  • to be the effect of
  • to be the consequence of
  • as a result of
  • as a consequence of


To introduce an effect/result

Sentence connectors

  • as a result
  • as a consequence
  • consequently
  • hence
  • thus
  • therefore

Other

  • to result in
  • to cause
  • to have an effect on
  • to affect
  • the cause of
  • the reason for


To give an example

Sentence connectors

  • for example
  • for instance
  • in this case

Other

  • such as (+ noun)
  • like
  • an example of (+ noun)
  • to demonstrate


To show chronological order

Sentence connectors

  • first, second, etc.
  • first of all
  • then
  • next
  • now
  • then
  • soon
  • last
  • finally
  • previously
  • meanwhile
  • gradually
  • after that
  • since
  • then

Clause connectors

  • after
  • as
  • as soon as
  • before
  • since
  • until
  • when
  • while

Other

  • the first, the second
  • the next, the last, the final
  • before (lunch etc.)
  • after (the war etc.)
  • since (1970 etc.)
  • in the year (2000 etc.)


To show order of importance

Sentence connectors

  • above all
  • first and foremost
  • more/most importantly
  • primarily

Other

  • a more important
  • the most important
  • the second most significant
  • the primary


To show an alternative


To identify or clarify

Sentence connectors

  • that is
  • in other words
  • specifically


To reinforce

Sentence connectors

  • in fact
  • indeed
  • of course
  • clearly


To conclude

Sentence connectors

  • all in all
  • in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in short
  • in summary

Other

  • to summarise
  • to conclude
  • It is clear that...
  • We can see that...
  • The evidence suggests...
  • These examples show...


Example essay

Below is an example essay. It is the one used in the persuasion essay section. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different types of transition signal in this essay.


Title: Consider whether human activity has made the world a better place.


Examples

 

Addition

   

Contrast

 

Reason

   

Alternative

 

Conclude

History shows that human beings have come a long way from where they started. They have developed new technologies which means that everybody can enjoy luxuries they never previously imagined. However, the technologies that are temporarily making this world a better place to live could well prove to be an ultimate disaster due to, among other things, the creation of nuclear weapons, increasing pollution, and loss of animal species.

The biggest threat to the earth caused by modern human activity comes from the creation of nuclear weapons. Although it cannot be denied that countries have to defend themselves, the kind of weapons that some of them currently possess are far in excess of what is needed for defence. If these weapons were used, they could lead to the destruction of the entire planet.

Another harm caused by human activity to this earth is pollution. People have become reliant on modern technology, which can have adverse effects on the environment. For example, reliance on cars causes air and noise pollution. Even seemingly innocent devices, such as computers and mobile phones, use electricity, most of which is produced from coal-burning power stations, which further adds to environmental pollution. If we do not curb our direct and indirect use of fossil fuels, the harm to the environment may be catastrophic.

Animals are an important feature of this earth and the past decades have witnessed the extinction of a considerable number of animal species. This is the consequence of human encroachment on wildlife habitats, for example deforestation to expand human cities. Some may argue that such loss of species is natural and has occurred throughout earth's history. However, the current rate of species loss far exceeds normal levels, and is threatening to become a mass extinction event.

In summary, there is no doubt that current human activities such as the creation of nuclear weapons, pollution, and destruction of wildlife, are harmful to the earth. It is important for us to see not only the short-term effects of our actions, but their long-term effects as well. Otherwise, human activities will be just another step towards destruction.

Transition signals

 

Examples

 

Addition

 

Contrast

 

Reason

 

Alternative

 

Conclude

 

GET A FREE SAMPLE

Like the website? Try the book. Enter your email to receive a free sample from the recently published title, EAP Foundation: Academic Presentations.


Checklist

Below is a checklist for transition signals. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.


ItemOK?Comment
There is good use of transition signals, without being overused (not every sentence!)
The grammar is correct (e.g. using sentence connectors to join sentences with a full-stop (period), using clause connectors to join two clauses, using other connectors correctly e.g. 'due to' + noun)
There are different types of transition signal


Next section

Find out how more about academic style in the next section.




Previous section

Go back to the previous section about cohesion.






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